[43], Zoë got more than she bargained for when Constantine decided to bring with him to his new station his long-standing mistress Maria Skleraina. Porfirogenet Constantine VII (Porphyrogenitus) - Byzantine emperor of the Macedonian dynasty, who ruled in 908-959 years. The first potential match was the distinguished noble Constantine Dalassenos, the former dux of Antioch. [16], Zoë was obsessed with continuing the Macedonian dynasty. [43], Zoë got more than she bargained for when Constantine decided to bring with him to his new station his long-standing mistress Maria Skleraina. [11][12] Zoe and Romanos married on 10 November 1028 in the imperial chapel of the palace. [33] At an assembly in Hagia Sophia the people escorted a furious Theodora and proclaimed her empress along with Zoë. Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Constantine VII (2 Sep 905–9 Nov 959), Find a Grave Memorial no. [5] Romanos Argyros, the urban prefect of Constantinople, was the next to be considered as a match. In a sense, Otto I was the successor to both Constantine and Charlemagne. [20] The pair were married on 11 June 1042, without the participation of Patriarch Alexios, who refused to officiate over a third marriage (for both spouses). [20] In 1033 Zoë became enamoured of a low-born servant called Michael. Despite the machinations of his younger brother Demetrios Palaiologos his mother Helena was able to secure Constantine XI's succession in 1448. Zoë was first married when she was 50 years old at the request of her father to insure stability in the empire. He had no male heir, and on his deathbed he arranged that his second daughter, Zoe, should succeed him and marry the eparch of … He was succeeded by his 1st cousin once removed Malcolm in 943 when he abdicated. Zoë Porphyrogenita (Greek: Ζωή Πορφυρογέννητη Medieval Greek: [zo'i] "life"; c. 978 – 11 June 1050) was Byzantine Empress from 11 November 1028 until her death in 1050. [21] John Scylitzes writes as a simple fact that Romanos was drowned on Michael's orders. Arnulf therefore selected the attractive 23-year-old Zoë, to which Basil II agreed. [5] Theodora defied her father by refusing to marry Romanos, arguing that he was already married – his wife having been forced to become a nun to allow Romanos to marry into the imperial family[10]:465 – and that as third cousins they had too close a blood relationship for marriage to occur. (Cplakidas / Public Domain ) Theodosius I , his successor, went a step further and made Christianity the official religion of the state, setting in motion a new era of history. [18] Romanos limited his wife's spending and paid her little attention. Zoë, aged 50, was married to Romanos Argyros. Michael V, desperate to keep his throne, brought Zoë back from Principus and displayed her to the people,[32] but his insistence that he continue to rule alongside her was in vain. [41] Her next choice was the married Constantine Atroklines, a court official with whom it was rumoured that she had had an affair during the reign of Romanos III. Zoë later visited her sister and forced her to take religious vows. [20] In 1033 Zoë became enamoured of a low-born servant called Michael. This action sparked a popular revolt which dethroned him and installed Zoë and her sister Theodora III as joint empresses. [5] Romanos Argyros, the urban prefect of Constantinople, was the next to be considered as a match. Romanus III Argyrus, (born c. 968—died April 11/12, 1034), Byzantine emperor from 1028 to 1034.. Of noble family, he was a prefect of Constantinople when he was compelled by the dying emperor, Constantine VIII, to marry his daughter Zoe and to become his successor. [2], When Basil II died, Constantine VIII took the throne. [40], Theodora and Zoë appeared together at meetings of the Senate and gave public audiences, but it was soon apparent that their joint reign was under strain. At some point, Theodosios had been suspected of conspiracy and his son's career suffered accordingly. [37] As her first act Theodora was called upon to deal with Michael V. Zoë wanted to pardon and free Michael, but Theodora was clear and adamant. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Successor Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans Wife/wives Minervina, died or divorced before 307 Fausta Dynasty Constantinian ... Optatus, Libri VII de Schismate Donatistarum (Seven Books on the Schism of the Donatists) first edition ca. [5], Her preference was for Constantine Dalassenos, who had been her father's first choice as her husband back in 1028. Constantine VII, called Porphyrogennetos because he was born "in the purple" to a reigning emperor, was Roman Emperor and Caliph of Islam from 912 to 959. Miscellaneous Edit Today, Tsimiski Street , the main commercial road in the center of Thessaloniki , … [4] His brother Basil II, the senior co-ruler, prevented his nieces from marrying any of the Byzantine nobility, as this would have given their husbands a claim on the imperial throne. His death has been variously attributed to Zoë, her young lover, or both. Eight years later, Zoë died aged 72. Skleraina was given the title of sebaste, ranking behind Zoë and Theodora, and was addressed as mistress or empress, like them. Psellus reports that her face looked youthful into her sixties. He was a pleasure-loving man who allowed the administration to fall into the hands of others. Hearing the rumours, Romanos was concerned and confronted Michael, but he denied the accusations. [19], Zoë, furious and frustrated, engaged in a number of affairs. [19], In early 1034 Romanos became ill and it was widely believed that Zoë and Michael were conspiring to have him poisoned. [20] According to court official and later chronicler Michael Psellus some of his retinue had "held his head for a long time beneath the water, attempting at the same time to strangle him". She was the second daughter of Constantine VIII and his wife Helena. True False 9. ]—died Nov. 9, 959), Byzantine emperor from 913 to 959. Constantine XI (Constantine Palaeologus), d. 1453, last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), brother and successor of John VIII John VIII (John Palaeologus), 1390–1448, Byzantine emperor (1425–48), son and successor of Manuel II. He was a Byzantine noble and senior official in Constantinoplewhen the dying Constantine VIIIforced him to … Constantine was born in 718 CE as the son and successor to Emperor Leo III, a Syrian diplomat under Justinian II who had gone on to found the Isaurian dynasty which lasted until 802 CE. He succeeded his father Constantine VII at the age of twenty-one and died suddenly four years later. As women they were unable to exercise any state authority; their only say in this was in choosing, or more likely accepting or not, a husband who would acquire their authority upon marriage. Zoë was born when her father Constantine was nominal co-emperor to his brother, Basil II. His brief reign is said to have been "an unmitigated disaster", sparking "a collapse of the military power of the Empire". The next day Constantine died and the newly-weds were seated on the imperial throne. He was succeeded by his son, Romanus II Romanus II, 939–63, Byzantine emperor (959–63), son and successor of Constantine VII. [15] Zoë accused her of being part of the conspiracy, and Theodora was forcibly confined in the monastery of Petrion. [6], As an eligible imperial princess Zoë was considered a possible bride for the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto III, in 996. [2] In January 1002 she accompanied Arnulf back to Italy, only to discover when the ship reached Bari that Otto had died, forcing her to return home. Ring 962 – 15 December 1025 (co-emperor) 15 December 1025 – 11 November 1028 (sole emperor) Zoë Porphyrogenita (Greek: Ζωή Πορφυρογέννητη Medieval Greek: [zo'i] "life"; c. 978 – 11 June 1050) was Byzantine Empress from 11 November 1028 until her death in 1050. Constantine XI Palaeologus , the last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), killed in the final defense of Constantinople against the Ottoman Turks. [3] Another opportunity for Zoë to marry arose in 1028, when an embassy from the Holy Roman Empire arrived in Constantinople with a proposal for an imperial marriage. The court began to split, with factions forming behind each empress. [9] The emperor's advisors preferred a weak ruler whom they could control and they persuaded him to reject Dalassenos after he had already been summoned to the capital. ... One Exarch excused himself from this task, but his successor carried it out in 653. He is sometimes referred to as Constantine XII, based on the erroneous idea that Constantine Lascaris was crowned in 1204. His death has been variously attributed to Zoë, her young lover, or both. Romanos tolerated these and took a mistress himself. Her father became co-emperor, at the age of two, in 962. [5] The next day they summoned the Patriarch Alexios I to officiate at the coronation of the new emperor. [40], Theodora and Zoë appeared together at meetings of the Senate and gave public audiences, but it was soon apparent that their joint reign was under strain. As he had no sons, Constantine hoped to continue the dynasty by marrying off one of his daughters. Zoë, aged 50, was married to Romanos Argyros. The sisters proceeded to administer the empire, focusing on curbing the sale of public offices and on the administration of justice. [33], A delegation headed by Patrician Constantine Cabasilas[34] went to the monastery at Petrion to convince Theodora to become co-empress alongside her sister. Of noble family, he was a prefect of Constantinople when he was compelled by the dying emperor, Constantine VIII, to marry his daughter Zoe and to become his successor. He was the younger son of Emperor Romanos II and Empress Theophano. She was the second daughter of Constantine VIII and his wife Helena. She was the second daughter of Constantine VIII and his wife Helena. [15] Zoë accused her of being part of the conspiracy, and Theodora was forcibly confined in the monastery of Petrion. [2] In January 1002 she accompanied Arnulf back to Italy, only to discover when the ship reached Bari that Otto had died, forcing her to return home. [35] After crowning the two empresses the mob stormed the palace, forcing Michael V to escape to a monastery. [43] On the following day Constantine was formally proclaimed emperor together with Zoë and Theodora. As he had no sons, Constantine hoped to continue the dynasty by marrying off one of his daughters. He was brought for an audience before the Empress, but during their conversation his independent and forceful manner displeased Zoe, and he was dismissed from her presence. Romanus III Argyrus, (born c. 968—died April 11/12, 1034), Byzantine emperor from 1028 to 1034. A street was dedicated to him after the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, which levelled downtown Thessaloniki. Basil died in 1025 when Zoë was 47. She initially guaranteed Michael's safety, but then ordered him to be blinded and to spend the rest of his life as a monk. [41], Zoë then remembered the handsome and urbane[41] Constantine Monomachos, another former lover. $12,997.00. [21] Matthew of Edessa's account has Zoë poisoning Romanos. As women they were unable to exercise any state authority; their only say in this was in choosing, or more likely accepting or not, a husband who would acquire their authority upon marriage. [2], When Basil II died, Constantine VIII took the throne. [5], In the eyes of the public however, Constantine IX's preferential treatment of Skleraina was a scandal, and eventually rumours began to spread that Skleraina was planning to murder Zoë, and possibly Theodora. [41] After two months of increasing acrimony, Zoë decided to search for a new husband – thereby denying Theodora the opportunity to increase her influence. At official events Skleraina took position immediately behind the sisters. [11][12] Zoe and Romanos married on 10 November 1028 in the imperial chapel of the palace. Today, in Thessaloniki, his name was immortalized after the result of Greek-Bulgarian tensions during the Balkan Wars. Constantine VIII on the reverse o this histamenon coin, wi croun, pelled labarum an akakia. [22] Although he initially refused to co-operate, the payment of 50 pounds of gold helped change his mind. $5,198.80. Constantius II. Constantine VII and the Historical Geography of Empire, Paul Magdalino 2. Constantine was born in 718 CE as the son and successor to Emperor Leo III, a Syrian diplomat under Justinian II who had gone on to found the Isaurian dynasty which lasted until 802 CE. Emperor Constantine, the last emperor of the Byzantine Empire. They took the throne the next day on her father's death. [21], Zoë and Michael were married on the same day that Romanos III died. Zoe Porphyrogenita (wife of Romanus III, Constantine IX, and Michael IV), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zoë_Porphyrogenita&oldid=995749297, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 18:07. [6] Zoë convinced Romanos to appoint one of his own men as the chief of Theodora's household, with orders to spy on her. Constantine VI, (born 770—died after Aug. 15, 797), Byzantine emperor from 780 to 797, grandson of Constantine V.. At 10 years of age Constantine succeeded his father, Leo IV, under the guardianship of his mother, Irene.It was during her regency that the seventh ecumenical Council of Nicaea (787) reestablished the veneration of icons. She flaunted her lover openly and spoke about making him emperor. Psellus reports that her face looked youthful into her sixties. [5] Theodora defied her father by refusing to marry Romanos, arguing that he was already married – his wife having been forced to become a nun to allow Romanos to marry into the imperial family[10]:465 – and that as third cousins they had too close a blood relationship for marriage to occur. [44] Not content with bringing her to court, he insisted that he be allowed to publicly share his life with her, and that she obtain some official recognition. [19], Zoë, furious and frustrated, engaged in a number of affairs. Michael V, desperate to keep his throne, brought Zoë back from Principus and displayed her to the people,[32] but his insistence that he continue to rule alongside her was in vain. Emperor Constantine VIII (r. 1025-1028), brother, co-emperor, and successor of Basil II Emperor Romanos III Argyros (r. 1028-1034), 1st husband of Zoe, former Byzantine senator Emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian (r. 1034-1041) Born 650 Syria, Rashidun Caliphate Died 4 February 708 Rome, Byzantine Empire [17] This failure to conceive helped alienate the couple, and soon Romanos refused to share the marriage bed with her. Constantine VII, like his father Leo VI, was “born in the purple” or porphyrogennetos.The phrase derived from the porphyry, a rare purple-laced marble, that was used in the chamber of the palace at Constantinople where Leo's birth, and many subsequent ones, took place. 7. Constantine had no sons, so shortly before his death he married his daughter Zoë to his chosen successor, Romanos Argyros The marriage of Zoë and Romanos III was troubled, and Romanos was found dead in his bath in 1034. Dec 29, 2017 - A gold coin of Basil II, emperor of the Byzantine empire (r. 976-1025 CE). Constantine XI. [39] Although contemporary historian Michael Psellus claimed the joint reign was a complete failure, John Scylitzes stated that they were very conscientious in rectifying the abuses of the previous reigns. [31] This treatment of the legitimate heir to the Macedonian Dynasty caused a popular uprising in Constantinople. Dynasty Macedonian dynasty . Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos (913-959) Romanos Lekapenos(919-944) Constantine VII. Attempting to maximise and prolong its effect she had a variety of creams and treatments prepared in the gynaeceum, and was said to have carried out experiments attempting to improve their efficacy. Constantine VIII, (born 960/961—died Nov. 12, 1028), Byzantine emperor, coemperor with his brother Basil II from c. 962 to 1025 and sole ruler from 1025 to 1028. He was the son of Leo VI the Sophos and Zoe. [21] On 11 April Romanos was found dying in his bath. [4] His brother Basil II, the senior co-ruler, prevented his nieces from marrying any of the Byzantine nobility, as this would have given their husbands a claim on the imperial throne. Garland, Lynda. She initially guaranteed Michael's safety, but then ordered him to be blinded and to spend the rest of his life as a monk. The Byzantine Coronation Ceremony, according to Emperor Constantine VII, Porphyrogennetos [It is apparent from the acclamations that the ceremony included the coronation of a Senior Emperor and his junior Emperor, according to the ancient system which had been in place since the time of Diocletian. The court began to split, with factions forming behind each empress. [45] The 64-year-old Zoë did not object to sharing her bed and her throne with Skleraina. “Asia and Europe Commonly Called East and West: Constantinople and Geographical Imagination in Byzantium, Dimiter Angelov 3. Constantine had no interest in politics, statecraft or the military. [46] This led to a popular uprising by the citizens of Constantinople in 1044, which came dangerously close to actually harming Constantine who was participating in a religious procession along the streets of Constantinople. With the help of his wife, Constantine VII succeeded in removing his brothers-in-law, and on January 27, 945, Constantine VII became sole emperor at the age of 39, after a life spent in the shadow. (Constantine Palaeologus), d. 1453, last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), brother and successor of John VIII John VIII. [11] Consequently, Constantine VIII chose Zoë to be Romanos's wife. Romanos (or Romanus) II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, Rōmanos II) (938 – 15 March 963) was a Byzantine Emperor. [6] Constantine determined that the ruling house would be continued by one of his daughters being married to an appropriate aristocrat. Constantine was only seven years old when assuming the throne. His powerful personality laid the foundations of post-classical European … Constantine I (306 - 337 A.D.) by Hans A. Pohlsander SUNY Albany Introduction The emperor Constantine has rightly been called the most important emperor of Late Antiquity. [13], Spending years in the same restrictive quarters with her sister, Zoë had come to loathe Theodora. [35] After crowning the two empresses the mob stormed the palace, forcing Michael V to escape to a monastery. Zoë, aged 50, was married to Romanos Argyros. At official events Skleraina took position immediately behind the sisters. She was forcibly tonsured and sworn into a religious order. The deaths of Emperor Leo VI the Wise in 912 and his brother and successor Alexander in 913, left the throne of the Byzantine Empire to Constantine VII. [48] Zoë recognised her own beauty and its use as a tool of statecraft. [5], By 1041 it was obvious that Michael IV was dying. Constantine VIII (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was reigning Byzantine emperor from December 15, 1025 until his death. Constantine XI (Constantine Palaeologus), d. 1453, last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), brother and successor of John VIII John VIII (John Palaeologus), 1390–1448, Byzantine emperor (1425–48), son and successor of Manuel II. Constantine's position improved after he married his second wife, a niece of Emperor Romanos III Argyros. Mar 14, 2013 - Sisinnius Papacy began 15 January 708 Papacy ended 4 February 708 Predecessor John VII Successor Constantine Personal details Birth name ??? Zoë was Porphyrogenita, "born into the purple"; this was the appellation for a child born in the capital to a reigning emperor. [36], Zoë immediately assumed power and tried to force Theodora back to her monastery, but the Senate and the people demanded that the sisters should jointly reign. Several months later, Constantine VII crowned his own son Romanos II co-emperor. [3] Another opportunity for Zoë to marry arose in 1028, when an embassy from the Holy Roman Empire arrived in Constantinople with a proposal for an imperial marriage. [5] Almost immediately upon marrying Romanos the fifty-year-old Zoë tried desperately to become pregnant. In practice Theodora was the driving force behind the joint administration. [41], Zoë then remembered the handsome and urbane[41] Constantine Monomachos, another former lover. Constantine was crowned co-emperor with his father in 720 CE. True False 9. [9] The emperor's advisors preferred a weak ruler whom they could control and they persuaded him to reject Dalassenos after he had already been summoned to the capital. The sisters proceeded to administer the empire, focusing on curbing the sale of public offices and on the administration of justice. [21], Zoë and Michael were married on the same day that Romanos III died. [16], Zoë was obsessed with continuing the Macedonian dynasty. [33] At an assembly in Hagia Sophia the people escorted a furious Theodora and proclaimed her empress along with Zoë. (Redirected from Romanus II) Romanos II or Romanus II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, 938 – 15 March 963) was Byzantine Emperor from 959 to 963. Constantine was the fourth son of [46] This led to a popular uprising by the citizens of Constantinople in 1044, which came dangerously close to actually harming Constantine who was participating in a religious procession along the streets of Constantinople. Inferno 19 boasts a high style marked by many apostrophes — including the canto opening — and much metaphoric language; the prostituting of the Church-bride by her Pope-bridegroom picks up and metaphorizes the sexualized language of Inferno 18; reference to the capital punishment of propaginazzione in verses 49-51; see the Commento on Inferno 27 for discussion of the historical … As he had no sons, Constantine hoped to continue the dynasty by marrying off one of his daughters. Michael IV was concerned about Zoë turning on him the way she had turned on Romanos,[25] so he excluded Zoë from politics by placing all power in the hands of his brother, the eunuch John the Orphanotrophos. (John Palaeologus), 1390–1448, Byzantine emperor (1425–48), son and successor of Manuel II. [36], Zoë immediately assumed power and tried to force Theodora back to her monastery, but the Senate and the people demanded that the sisters should jointly reign. [44] Not content with bringing her to court, he insisted that he be allowed to publicly share his life with her, and that she obtain some official recognition. When Constantine came of age, Irene attempted to … He died in 952. After a two-month joint reign Zoë married a former lover who was installed as Constantine IX, transferring power to him, However, she continued to rule the empire as the heir to the empire and the emperor's wife as the Byzantine empress. This action sparked a popular revolt which dethroned him and installed Zoë and her sister Theodora III as joint empresses. [38], Officially Zoë was the senior empress, and her throne was situated slightly in front of Theodora's on all public occasions. Basil was succeeded by Constantine VIII (reigned 1025–28) and by Constantine's daughter Zoë Zoë , c.978–1050, Byzantine empress (1028–50), daughter and successor of Constantine VIII. In 1041, Zoë was persuaded to adopt her dying husband's nephew, Michael Kalaphates. He was nominal co-emperor for 63 years, successively with his father; stepfather, Nikephoros II Phokas; uncle, John I Tzimiskes; and brother, Basil II. His writings are one of the best sources of information on the Byzantine Empire and neighbouring areas. [42] In 1041, Zoë was persuaded to adopt her dying husband's nephew, Michael Kalaphates. [14] Shortly afterwards, Theodora was accused of plotting to usurp the throne, first with Presian in 1030, followed by Constantine Diogenes, the governor of Sirmium, in 1031. [5][49] Zoë died on 11 June 1050 aged 72. [5] Consequently, Zoë lived a life of virtual obscurity in the imperial gynaeceum (women's quarters) for many years. His reign as sole emperor lasted less than three years, from 15 December 1025 to 11 November 1028. [6] Constantine determined that the ruling house would be continued by one of his daughters being married to an appropriate aristocrat. The next day Constantine died and the newly-weds were seated on the imperial throne. [20] On 10 December 1041, Michael IV died, refusing to the last to see his wife who begged that she be allowed to visit him one more time,[28] and his nephew Michael V was crowned emperor. Zoë later visited her sister and forced her to take religious vows. By the rules of the Orthodox Church her next marriage, her third, was the last she was permitted. She operated a cosmetics laboratory in her rooms in the palace, where perfumes and unguents were constantly being prepared. Zoe Porphyrogenita (wife of Romanus III, Constantine IX, and Michael IV), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zoë_Porphyrogenita&oldid=995749297, Burials at the Church of the Holy Apostles, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 18:07.